Think of the curriculum vitae (CV) as an “academic resume.” It is a document intended to highlight education and accomplishments in order to persuade someone of your academic potential. It can be used to apply to Research Assistant roles, graduate schools, scholarships, Teaching Assistant roles, Professorships, and many other opportunities.
Unlike a resume, which is short and tailored to include only experiences that are most relevant to the role to which you are applying, the CV has no limit in length and includes information about every element of your academic career.
In some industries and parts of the world such as Quebec and Europe, the term "CV" is used interchangeably with “resume”. Research your industry and the geographic area(s) where you'll be applying. When in doubt, ask the employer what type of document they prefer.